April 17, 2024

Train Seat Materials: Ensuring Passenger Safety And Comfort

With hundreds of millions of passengers travelling on trains each year, train seat materials are an important consideration for both passenger safety and comfort. The right materials can help prevent injuries in case of accidents or sudden stops while also providing long-term durability and cushioning over many years of use.

Plastics
Plastics have become a widely used material for train seats due to their lightweight and durable properties. Different types of plastics offer varying characteristics suitable for different applications.

Polyester: Polyester is a thermoplastic that is strong, flexible and easy to dye. Its smooth and seamless surface makes it easy to clean. These properties make it useful for outer seat shells that require easy maintenance. However, polyester can crack or fade with excessive UV exposure over long periods.

Polypropylene: As a thermoplastic, polypropylene offers high strength and shatter resistance properties suitable for seating structures. It is less prone to cracks or fading compared to polyester. Polypropylene remains flexible even at sub-zero temperatures, making it well-suited for train carriages without heating in colder climates.

Reinforced plastics: Adding fibres such as glass or carbon into plastics improves their strength-to-weight ratio, making them well-suited for seating parts that must withstand high impact forces. Glass-reinforced polyester and nylon are commonly used reinforced thermoplastics that balance strength, rigidity and light weight. This reinforcement allows plastic seats to meet safety standards for withstanding emergency braking forces.

Fabrics
Textile fabrics provide cushioning and are used for surfaces that passengers interact with the most. Different fabric types suit various environments and washing/wear requirements.

Vinyl: Vinyl or PVC fabrics are very durable and water resistant, making them suitable for areas that require frequent cleaning such as subway systems. However, they can tear more easily than other options.

Nylon: As a synthetic fiber, nylon is strong, dries quickly and resists cracking or fading from UV light. It is commonly used for outer seat covers that may get wet or dirty.

Polyester: Like nylon, polyester fabrics are very strong, quick drying and resist fading. They can be coated or laminated with other materials like vinyl for easier maintenance.

leather: Leather provides luxury and cushioning but requires more frequent cleaning and conditioning to maintain its appearance over the years. It is commonly used on seats of premium trains.

Foams and pads
Foam cushions and pads beneath seat covers provide important comfort factors like pressure relief, heat insulation and vibration damping ability.

Polyurethane: As a very lightweight yet durable foam, polyurethane is widely used for seat cushions and backrest pads. It can be tailored with different density foams to suit specific cushioning needs.

PE foams: Polyethylene foams also combine cushioning with excellent durability properties. Low-density PE foams provide insulation while higher densities versions offer impact protection.

Gels: Silicone or other gels suspended within an elastic polymer can self-adjust pressure relief qualities over years of use. Gel cushions are becoming increasingly popular for active transit and long-distance train journeys.

Adhesives and Bindings
Strong, enduring adhesives and fastenings are needed to join all Seat Material components together securely.

Contact adhesives: Strong contact adhesives permanently bond seat covers to cushion foams and shells during assembly. Advanced formulations have very high bond strengths and water resistance.

Thread/stitching: For certain applications like leather or reinforced fabric seats, industrial-strength thread is used with high-tension stitching to securely join seat sections.

Mechanical fastenings: Clips, bolts/nuts, screws or rivets mechanically bind large seat modules together and interface with tracks/floors. Stainless steel versions prevent corrosion in harsh environments.

Testing and Standards Compliance
All train seat materials undergo rigorous safety and endurance testing before deployment:

Fire resistance: Materials must self-extinguish within safe time limits and emit minimal toxic fumes when exposed to open flames or high heat. Tests include small flame testing.

Abrasion/wear: Cyclic abrasion testing subjects surfaces to equivalent years of use to ensure durability and retention of strength/aesthetic qualities like colours.

Impact testing: Drop tower or pendulum impact tests simulate forces from sudden braking, collisions or passenger falls to ensure components do not break or degrade catastrophically.

Toxicity: All materials, adhesives and surface coatings undergo testing to certify they do not emit harmful fumes or leach toxic substances during use or fires.

Combining the right materials tailored for specific applications helps provide train passengers with safe, long-lasting and comfortable seating journey after journey. Ongoing innovation also improves sustainability and reduces maintenance needs over the service life of trains.

*Note:
1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it