May 29, 2024
Track and Trace Solutions
Ict

Track and Trace Solutions for Battling Future Pandemics

Introduction
As evidenced by the ongoing global pandemic from COVID-19, the ability to effectively track and trace contacts of infected individuals is crucially important for curbing the spread of infectious diseases. While lockdowns and social distancing measures play an important role, without an efficient contact tracing program in place, it is nearly impossible to stay ahead of fast-moving viruses. Thankfully, technology has advanced considerably in recent years, providing new Track And Trace Solutions that governments and health officials can leverage to better protect public health in future outbreaks.

Contact Tracing: An Effective Pandemic Control Strategy
Contact tracing has long been used by public health professionals but was limited by reliance on human resources and paper-based systems that could not keep up with the scale of a modern pandemic. The basic principle is simple – once a person tests positive, trained contact tracers interview them to gather details about everyone they had close contact with during their presumed infectious period. Those contacts are then notified and advised to self-isolate and monitor for symptoms. By breaking potential chains of transmission early, contact tracing can help slow or stop the spread. Studies show that even basic contact tracing, combined with testing and isolation, can reduce infection rates by up to 81%. However, traditional manual methods simply cannot perform at the speed and coverage needed for pandemics.

Digital Solutions Power Modern Contact Tracing
That is where digital track and trace technologies come in. Apps, Bluetooth beacon technology, centralized databases, and automated processes now make it possible to augment and accelerate contact tracing efforts to truly massive scale. Digital methods address some of the biggest challenges faced by manual tracers – quickly reaching more contacts, handling high caseloads, anonymously notifying strangers, and obtaining real-time data insights. Countries that implemented robust digital tracing saw significantly lower infection rates than those relying on people and paperwork alone. While no single solution is perfect and privacy protections are paramount, the ability to digitally trace hundreds of potential exposures per infected individual represents a game-changing pandemic control capability.

Bluetooth-Based Contact Tracing Apps
Among the most common digital tracing methods utilized worldwide are smartphone apps that leverage Bluetooth Low Energy technology. Users consent to have the app continuously and anonymously exchange digital ‘handshakes’ with nearby phones also running the app. If a person tests positive, they receive a code to voluntarily upload to the app. It then alerts all recent close contacts, allowing them to self-isolate promptly before potentially spreading the virus further. Large-scale pilots in countries like Iceland found these apps can identify 60% more contacts than calls alone. As long as enough of the population participates – estimated at 60% for maximum effectiveness – Bluetooth apps offer the most scalable and privacy-protecting digital tracing tool available.

Centralized and Decentralized Tracking Approaches
There has been much debate around centralized vs decentralized models for storing and processing the data gathered through apps and other track and trace programs. Centralized national systems give health authorities direct access to user data for thorough analysis and policymaking but involve greater privacy and cybersecurity risks. Decentralized methods address these concerns by keeping exposure data locally on devices and only notifying users of potential contacts without revealing personal details, but tradeoff giving less granular insights to officials. Most successful programs worldwide like in Germany and Norway have adopted privacy-centric decentralized designs that empower individuals while still supporting public health response. However, hybrid solutions capturing some anonymous aggregated information may balance both needs.

Integrating Digital and Manual Methods
While digital tracing enables unprecedented scale, humans remain vital – both to supplement technology and for vulnerable groups without access. Digital monitoring rarely replaces the work of contact tracers but rather multiplies their reach and speed. Apps provide an additional channel to alert more people, not a replacement for interviews. Manual follow-ups are also still needed since digital interactions are not foolproof. Those testing positive still talk to case investigators who can assess risk factors, symptoms, gather contextual details, and ensure those at highest risk of spreading the virus the most are supported to isolate properly. The combination of fast digital exposure notifications with targeted human interaction represents the strongest overall system for breaking transmission chains.

Key Considerations for Future Deployments
Going forward, some lessons are emerging on best practices for developing effective track and trace systems capable of containing future pandemics:

– Comprehensive testing programs are still foundational, as digital monitoring means little without confirming infections.

– Strong data privacy and transparency are paramount to maintain public trust in potentially sensitive health surveillance programs.

– Successful adoption relies on apps being optimized for accessibility, simplicity, and voluntary community buy-in rather than mandates.

– Interoperability standards allowing cross-border exposure notifications are critical as viruses respect no boundaries.

– Integrating public health data systems digitally while protecting individual privacy presents complex challenges but huge potential benefits.

– Continued long-term investment and planning is warranted given pandemic risks will remain alongside evolving digital capabilities.

With thoughtful, consensus-driven implementation guided by these principles, digital track and trace technologies offer tremendous hope of limiting future outbreaks. By staying ahead of fast-moving viruses through proactive monitoring, governments can help curb pandemics sooner and restore normalcy more quickly through focused protection of the most at-risk.

*Note:
1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it