June 22, 2024
Myopia And Presbyopia Treatment

Myopia And Presbyopia Treatment: Understanding Vision Issues And Available Options

What Causes Myopia And Presbyopia?

Myopia, commonly known as nearsightedness, occurs when the eyeball grows too long or the cornea has too much curved causing light to bend too much and focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it. This makes distant objects appear blurry while close objects remain clear. Myopia is genetic and more common in Asian populations with prevalence rates as high as 80-90%. Prolonged near work like studying or screen time is also associated with increased risk.

Presbyopia is the natural age-related hardening of the eye’s lens causing it to lose elasticity. Around the age of 40, the lens can no longer change shape to focus on close objects. As people age, Myopia And Presbyopia Treatment worsens gradually making reading, cooking, sewing or using smartphones progressively difficult without reading glasses. It occurs because the internal structures of the eye slowly lose flexibility with time.

Diagnosis And Types of Myopia

Ophthalmologists diagnose myopia through eye examinations where they check visual acuity with an eye chart and perform refraction tests to determine the eye’s refractive error. Myopia is classified based on the degree of nearsightedness:

– Low Myopia: Between -0.50 to -3.00 diopters
– Moderate Myopia: Between -3.00 to -6.00 diopters
– High Myopia: Greater than -6.00 diopters

High myopia carries increased risks of certain ocular complications like glaucoma, cataracts, retinal detachment or macular degeneration in later life. It requires close monitoring with regular comprehensive eye exams.

Treatment Options For Myopia

For mild to moderate myopia, spectacle lenses or contact lenses remain the most common options to clearly see distant objects. Progressions to high myopia may occasionally warrant additional treatments:

– Orthokeratology uses specialty contact lenses worn overnight to temporarily flatten the cornea and reduce nearsightedness during waking hours.

– LASIK or LASEK are laser eye surgeries performed on an outpatient basis that permanently reshape the cornea using excimer lasers, offering spectacle independence in 90% cases. Risks include dry eyes, glare or halos around lights at night.

– Refractive lens exchange surgically replaces the natural lens with an artificial IOL to simultaneously treat both myopia and presbyopia. It has less dependency on corneal tissue.

Managing Presbyopia

Presbyopia itself doesn’t require treatment as it’s an age-related condition that worsens gradually. Reading glasses or bifocals provide immediate relief and allow the eyes to temporarily regain near focus. Multifocal contact lenses or monovision techniques distribute focusing power between the two eyes for continuous intermediate to near vision.

Refractive lens exchange or lens implants are emerging options for those seeking spectacle independence. Intraocular lenses specially designed for presbyopia are implanted during cataract surgery or as standalone procedures to restore accommodation. Phakic IOLs sit behind the natural lens while replacement lenses are used in lens replacement surgeries.

Latest Advancements

Research into new treatment modalities is ongoing. Scleral expanders are being studied for slowing myopia progression in teens by gently stretching the sclera and elongating the eyeballs at a controlled rate. Corneal Inlays are implants that may enhance near focus without altering distance vision. Bionic contact lenses have embedded displays and cameras to enhance vision in novel ways.

Gene therapy holds promise where targeted genes control the signaling pathways involved in eye growth. Myopiapro is a FDA approved atropine eye drop treatment that modestly reduces myopia progression by relaxing accommodation and blurring near focus, though long term safety is not established.

Myopia And Presbyopia Treatment affect a major segment of the global population. Thankfully, established options effectively manage vision needs. Ongoing innovations particularly gene and cell-based therapies may someday prevent or even reverse these common conditions. Regular eye care ensures timely diagnosis and treatment to maximize ocular health throughout life.

1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research

2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it